Coal fly ash as the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion

Sky stripes disperse into murky, hazy clouds that are frequently seen over Chattanooga, Tenn. ” The ability of coal fly ash to release aluminum in a chemically mobile form upon exposure to water or body moisture has potentially grave human and environmental consequences.” (Photo Chemtrails Global Skywatch)
A noxious sky over central Pennsylvania offers redundant trails spreading a hazy blight. The target: sunlight. The ingredient: coal fly ash, according to new research. (Photo David Mace,

We provide further compelling evidence that aerosolized coal fly ash and its various components, especially iron, is the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) gases, as “decreed” by the Montreal Protocol of 1989. Aerosolized coal fly ash is a toxic “witches’ brew” of numerous elements and substances that destroy ozone directly and indirectly by numerous chemical reactions, the full extent of which is not yet known.

By Mark Whiteside, M.D., M.P.H. Florida Department of Health, Key West, FL 33040 USA

and by J. Marvin Herndon, Ph.D., Transdyne Corp., San Diego, CA 92131 USA


The prevailing CFC-ozone depletion theory is simply wrong, and does not account for multiple chemical and photochemical reactions that kill stratospheric ozone. We discuss the primary role of coal fly ash particles in ice nucleation and cloud formation in the upper troposphere and stratosphere, and dispel the notion that meteoric or extra-terrestrial material is responsible for polar stratospheric clouds.

We provide extensive documentation that iron and several other elements found in coal fly ash are trapped in polar stratospheric clouds and destroy ozone by various means, especially when they are released in the spring.

Recent scientific discoveries “fit together” to strongly support the New Paradigm of stratospheric ozone depletion by coal fly ash. The “World Not Avoided” by the Montreal Protocol is already here: The biosphere is in collapse with runaway global warming, and lethal ultraviolet radiation penetrating to Earth’s surface. This new paradigm shift must be operationalized.

Time is critically short to salvage what we can of Earth’s vital life support systems, including the stratospheric ozone layer. We reiterate that all sources of aerosolized coal fly ash must be reduced and/or eliminated. All forms of geoengineering must stop immediately if we are to survive as a species. The deliberate assault on Earth’s natural processes, we allege, constitutes no less than acts of planetary treason.


We have previously provided compelling evidence that coal fly ash particles, not chlorofluorocarbons (CFC’s), are the primary cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, through numerous ozone-killing reactions, graphically illustrated in Figure 1 from [1].

Coal fly ash itself can destroy ozone in a variety of ways [1, 3-8]. Stratospheric ozone can be destroyed by reactive halogens, and chlorine, bromine, fluorine, and iodine, of which are found in coal fly ash [9]. Ironically, combustion of coal even produces some chlorofluorocarbons that are found in coal fly ash [10]. Experimental data shows that separate components of coal fly ash can absorb or destroy ozone. For example, there is reactive uptake of ozone on mineral oxides including those of aluminum, silicon, and iron, all major components of coal fly ash [11]. The surfaces of coal fly ash carbon are oxidized by ozone [5], and ozone reacts with carbon nanoparticles [6-8]. Submicron carbon and iron aerosol particles are found to destroy ozone efficiently, with the implication that these particles in the stratosphere may represent a significant cause of ozone depletion [12].

Please read more

  1. Herndon, J.M. and M. Whiteside, Aerosolized coal fly ash particles, the main cause of stratospheric ozone depletion, not chlorofluorocarbon gases. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 2022. 10(3): p. 586-603.
  2. Whiteside, M. and J.M. Herndon, Destruction of stratospheric ozone: Role of aerosolized coal fly ash iron. European Journal of Applied Sciences, 2022. 10(4): p. 143-153.
  3. Chen, X., et al. Fly ash beneficiation with ozone: Mechanism of absorption suppression. in Abstracts of papers of the American Chemical Society. 2002. Amer Chemical Soc 1155 16TH ST, NW, Washington, DC 20036 USA.
  4. Alebic-Juretic, A., T. Cvitas, and L. Klasinc, Ozone destruction on solid particles. Environmental monitoring and assessment, 1997. 44(1): p. 241-247.
  5. Pedersen, K.H., et al., Post-treatment of fly ash by ozone in a fixed bed reactor. Energy & fuels, 2009. 23(1): p. 280-285.
  6. Cataldo, F., Ozone reaction with carbon nanostructures 1: reaction between solid C60 and C70 fullerenes and ozone. Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, 2007. 7(4-5): p. 1439-1445.
  7. Cataldo, F., Ozone reaction with carbon nanostructures 2: The reaction of ozone with milled graphite and different carbon black grades. Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology, 2007. 7(4-5): p. 1446-1454.
  8. Razumovskii, S., et al., Carbon nanostructure reactivity: reactions of graphite powders with ozone. Fullerenes, Nanotubes, and Carbon Nonstructures, 2007. 15(1): p. 53-63.
  9. NRC, Trace-element Geochemistry of Coal Resource Development Related to Environmental Quality and Health1980: National Academy Press.
  10. Jiaxi, L., et al., The production and release of CFCs from coal combustion. Acta Geologica Sinica-English Edition, 2003. 77(1): p. 81-85.
  11. Michel, A., C. Usher, and V. Grassian, Heterogeneous and catalytic uptake of ozone on mineral oxides and dusts: A Knudsen cell investigation. Geophysical research letters, 2002. 29(14): p. 10-1-10-4.
  12. Fenidel, W., et al., Interaction between carbon or iron aerosol particles and ozone. Atmospheric Environment, 29(9): p. 967-973.

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